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WARD-CGM: Continuous Glucose Monitoring

Study design

Prospective observational study

Sample size

80 participants grouped as:


n=20 (Type 1 diabetes)

n=20 (Type 2 diabetes treated with insulin)

n=20 (Type 2 diabetes treated with oral anti hyperglycemic drugs and/or GLP-1 analogs)

n=20 (No diabetes)


Study sites

Bispebjerg Hospital and Rigshospitalet


Inclusion criteria

Adult patients undergoing acute or elective major abdominal surgery, major orthopedic surgery or major arterial vascular surgery.


Study Procedures

The patients will have the following parameters and vital signs continuously monitored using wireless equipment:

Continuous glucose monitoring, Heart rate, Heart rhythmRespiration rate, Peripheral oxygen saturation, Perfusion index and Blood pressure.

The monitoring period starts on the day of surgery or the day before and continues until the patient is discharged or for up to 10 days for continuous glucose monitoring and up to 5 days for the remaining modalities. 

Primary outcome

Duration of glucose levels < 3.9 mmol/L as measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)

Primary Investigator

Christian Jakob Carlsson, MD, PhD

NCT link